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September 17, 2020

轉苦樂為菩提 Transforming Suffering and Happiness into Enlightenment 下

 

轉苦樂為菩提

Transforming Suffering and Happiness into Enlightenment

多智欽‧吉美丹貝尼瑪

by Dodrupchen Jigme Tenpe Nyima

2. 轉快樂為菩提道的方法

How To Use Happiness as the Path to Enlightenment

i. 依世俗諦

Through Relative Truth

每當快樂和能帶來快樂的各種事物出現時,如果我們受到它們的影響,就會變得更加驕傲、沾沾自喜和懶惰懈怠,而這些會障礙我們的修行與進步。 事實上,不被快樂所牽引是有困難的,就像帕當巴‧桑傑(Padampa Sangye)指出的:

Whenever happiness and the various things that cause happiness appear, if we slip under their power, then we will grow increasingly conceited, smug and lazy, which will block our spiritual path and progress. In fact it’s difficult not to be carried away by happiness, as Padampa Sangye pointed out:

我們人類能應付許多的痛苦,
但很難應付快樂。

We human beings can cope with a lot of suffering,

But very little happiness.

這就是為什麼我們需要盡一切所能地張開雙眼、認清事實的原因,而此事實便是:快樂和能帶來快樂的各種事物其實都是無常的,而且它們的本質就是痛苦。 所以我們要盡力引發一種深刻的幻滅感,不再讓自心耽溺於它通常的冷漠與忽略中。告訴自己:「仔細看:這個世間所有的快樂和有形財富,都是微不足道且沒有意義的,只會帶來各種問題與困難。」然而,就某種意義來說,它還是有好的一面。

That’s why we need to open our eyes, in whatever ways we can, to the fact that happiness and the things that cause happiness are all actually impermanent, and are by nature suffering.So try as best you can to arouse a deep sense of disillusionment, and to stop your mind indulging in its usual apathy and negligence. Say to yourself: “Look: all the happiness and material wealth of this world is trifling and insignificant, and brings with it all kinds of problems and difficulties. Still, in a certain sense, it does have its good side. 

佛陀說:「一個因痛苦而自由受損的人要達到證悟是極難的,但是對一個快樂的人來說,就比較容易。」 那麼,能像這樣在快樂的狀態下修學佛法,是多麼幸運啊!所以,從現在開始,我要盡己所能地將快樂轉化為佛法,接著,快樂和幸福就會從佛法中不斷生起。這就是我如何讓佛法和快樂成為彼此助力的方式。否則我會一直停留在起點,好比試圖在木製的平底鍋裡煮開水一樣。

Buddha said that someone whose freedom is impaired by suffering will have great difficulty attaining enlightenment, but for someone who is happy, it is easier to attain. “What good fortune then to be able to practise the Dharma in a state of happiness like this! So, from now on, in whatever way I can, I must convert this happiness into Dharma, and then from the Dharma, happiness and well-being will continuously arise. That’s how I can train in making Dharma and happiness support one another. Otherwise, I’ll always end up where I started—like trying to boil water in a wooden saucepan.”

這裡的重點是:無論我們遇到何種快樂、何種幸福,都必須把它和佛法修行結合。這就是龍樹尊者《寶鬘論》所含的整體見解。 即使我們是快樂的,但如果並未認清這一點,就絕不可能運用此快樂作為修習佛法的機會。相反地,我們會永遠期待有某種其他額外的快樂來臨,還把生命浪費在無數的計劃和作為上。對治這種狀況的方法是將修持運用在任何合宜之處,而且最重要的是,要細細品嚐知足的甘露。 

The main point to get here is that whatever happiness, whatever well-being, comes our way, we must unite it with Dharma practice. This is the whole vision behind Nāgārjuna’s Garland of Jewels.Even though we may be happy, if we don’t recognize it, we will never be able to make use of that happiness as an opportunity for practising the Dharma. Instead we’ll be forever hoping that some extra happiness will come our way, and we’ll waste our lives on countless projects and actions. The antidote to this is to apply the practice wherever it is appropriate, and, above all, to savour the nectar of contentment.

還有其他方法可以把快樂轉為道用,特別是基於憶念佛法僧之恩慈、培養菩提心之教誡(這兩種)的方法;但目前暫且如此。正如轉痛苦為道用的情況,轉快樂為道用也是如此:你需要到一個僻靜的閉關環境,並將此與積資、淨障、福德與智慧的修持結合。

There are other ways of turning happiness into the path, especially those based on recalling the kindness of the Buddha, Dharma and Saṅgha, and on the instructions for training in bodhicitta, but this will do for now. As with using suffering as the path, so with happiness too, you need to go to a solitary retreat environment and combine this with practices of purification and accumulating merit and wisdom.

ii. 依勝義諦

The Absolute Dimension

這與轉痛苦為道用是一樣的。

This is the same as for turning suffering into the path.

如此訓練的益處

What this Training Brings

若因種種焦慮而無法在受苦時進行修持,又因執著快樂而無法在快樂時進行修持,便排除了所有修持佛法的機會。這就是為什麼對修行人來說,沒有比把快樂和痛苦轉為道用更重要的了。若具這種訓練,則不論身處何方——遠離人群或居於都市,周遭之人是好是壞,自身狀況是富是貧、快樂或沮喪,所聞之言是讚美或責備、好話或惡語,你都不會有絲毫恐懼而害怕自己可能因此被擊垮。難怪此等訓練會被稱為「獅子喻瑜伽」(猶如獅子一般的瑜伽)。無論所做何事,你的心將會保持快樂、平靜、開朗和放鬆。整個心態是清淨的,而且一切都會有很好的結果。色身或許處於我們這個不淨的世界中,但自心將能體驗到無法想像的喜樂光燦,就如諸般菩薩在各自的淨土中一樣。正如殊勝的噶當派大師們所常說的:

If we cannot practise when we’re suffering because of all the anxiety we go through, and we cannot practise when we’re happy because of our attachment to happiness, then that rules out any chance of our practising Dharma at all. That is why there is nothing more crucial for a practitioner than this training in turning happiness and suffering into the path. And if you do have this training, no matter where you live, in a solitary place or in the middle of a city; whatever the people around you are like, good or bad; whether you’re rich or poor, happy or distressed; whatever you have to listen to, praise or condemnation, good words or bad; you’ll never feel the slightest fear that it could bring you down in any way. No wonder this training is called the ‘Lion-Like Yoga’. Whatever you do, your mind will be happy, peaceful, spacious and relaxed. Your whole attitude will be pure, and everything will turn out excellently. Your body might be living in this impure world of ours, but your mind will experience the splendour of an unimaginable bliss, like the bodhisattvas in their pure realms. It’ll be just as the precious Kadampa masters used to say:

讓快樂有所節制,

讓痛苦就此終盡。
若掌控快樂,

也停止痛苦:
則獨處之時,

此修持將成為真實友伴;
於患病之時,

此修持將成為你的護士。

Keep happiness under control;

Put an end to suffering.
With happiness under control
And suffering brought to an end:
When you’re all alone,
This training will be your true friend;
When you are sick,
It will be your nurse.

煉金匠會先用火把金子融化以去除雜質,然後重複用水沖洗以增加延展性。這和修心是一樣的。若因修持把快樂轉為道用,而使你變得對快樂有所疲厭並產生反感,又因修持把痛苦轉為道用,而使自心變得清明、愉悅,則你將輕易獲得身心皆能圓成自己所願之事的殊勝三摩地。

Goldsmiths first remove the impurities from gold by melting it in fire, and then make it malleable by rinsing it over and over again in water. It is just the same with the mind. If by using happiness as the path, you become weary and disgusted with it, and by taking suffering as the path, you make your mind clear and cheerful, then you will easily attain the extraordinary samādhi which makes mind and body capable of doing anything you wish.

我認為此一教誡是所有教誡中最深奧的,因為它能使持戒圓滿,而持戒是一切正面、健全之事的源頭。這是因為:不執取快樂,能為出離心此一殊勝戒律奠定基礎;而不畏懼痛苦,則能讓(出離心)此戒律徹底清淨。如人所言:

This instruction, I feel, is the most profound of all, for it perfects discipline, the source of everything positive and wholesome. This is because not being attached to happiness creates the basis of the extraordinary discipline of renunciation, and not being afraid of suffering makes this discipline completely pure. As they say:

布施乃持戒之基礎,
安忍則使持戒清淨。

Generosity forms the basis for discipline;

And patience is what purifies it.

藉此修持訓練,當你達到修道更高次第時,將如下所述:

By training in this practice now, then when you attain the higher stages of the path, this is what it will be like:

了悟諸般現象皆如幻,
投生好比走入宜人園。
無論遭逢繁榮或衰敗,
皆無懼於煩惱或痛苦。

You will realize that all phenomena are like an illusion, and

To be born again is just like walking into a lovely garden.
Whether you face prosperity or ruin,
You’ll have no fear of negative emotions or suffering.

接下來是關於佛陀生平的一些描述。佛陀證悟前,他捨棄了轉輪聖王的王國,彷彿那只是稻草,獨自住在尼連禪河旁,完全不在乎修持苦行所帶來的艱苦。他所示現的是:為了成就自身的究竟利益,也就是了悟的甘露,我們就必須確實掌握快樂和痛苦之一味。

Here are some illustrations from the life of the Buddha. Before he attained enlightenment, he abandoned the kingdom of a universal monarch as if it were straw and lived by the river Nairañjanā without a care for the harshness of the austerities he was practising. What he showed was that in order to accomplish our own ultimate benefit, the nectar of realization, we must have mastered the one taste of happiness and suffering.

佛陀證得正覺後,人道與天界——上至天界最高的領導者,都向他致上最高的敬意,頂戴他的雙足,並且滿懷喜悅地予以侍奉、讚揚。然而,有一位名為頗羅墮闍(Bhāradvāja)的婆羅門卻辱罵和批評他一百次;誣告他曾和某位婆羅門不知自重的女兒有不軌之事;說他在阿耆達多王(King Agnidatta)的領土中有三個月靠著吃腐爛的馬秣過日子……等等。但佛陀的心沒有絲毫波動,既不興奮也不氣餒,就像須彌山不會被風所撼動一樣。他所示現的是:為了成就有情眾生的利益,我們同樣也必須確實掌握快樂和痛苦之等味。

Then after he attained enlightenment, the chiefs of humans and gods, as far as the highest realms, showed him the greatest reverence, placing his feet on the crown of their heads, and offering to serve and honour him with all manner of delights. However, a brahmin called Bhāradvāja abused him and criticized him a hundred times; he was accused of sexual misconduct with the impudent daughter of another brahmin; he lived off rotten horse fodder for three months in the land of King Agnidatta, and so on. But he remained without the slightest fluctuation in his mind, neither elated nor downcast, like Mount Meru unshaken by the wind. He showed that in order to accomplish the benefit of sentient beings, again we have to have mastered that equal taste of happiness and suffering.

後記

Afterword

如此之教授應由噶當派大師來教導,因為他們的生活便是以身作則、實踐所言:

A teaching like this should really be taught by the Kadampa masters, whose very lives enacted their saying:

苦時無抱怨,樂時大出離。

“No complaints when there’s suffering,

Great renunciation when there’s happiness.”

但若由我這種人來解釋,肯定就連我的舌頭都會因羞赧而無法忍受,以致語塞。然而,懷著要把「視一切世俗關注¹⁰為一味」變成個人第二本性之唯一目的,吾此老乞丐丹貝尼瑪(Tenpe Nyima)在這個鳥群森林裡寫下了這些文字。

But if it’s someone like me who explains it, then I’m sure that even my own tongue is going to get fed up and cringe with embarrassment. Still, with the sole aim of making one taste of all the worldly preoccupations ¹⁰ my second nature, I, the old beggar Tenpe Nyima, have written this, here in the forest of many birds.

中文翻译:

普賢法譯小組Rebecca、Shauwen、Peiying翻譯校對,Serena完稿於2020年藏曆具香月地藏王菩薩節日翌日,願一切善妙吉祥!

English Translation: 

This edition was prepared especially for Lotsawa House by Adam Pearcey, 2006, based on earlier versions by Rigpa Translations.

Notes 

  

這裡指的是「壞苦」。當愉悅的狀況產生變化,它就成了痛苦之源。例如可以設想,由於孩子死亡所致的哀傷。我們會感到這類痛苦,是因為當小孩活著時,我們是那麼的快樂。 

This is a reference to the ‘suffering of change’. When a pleasant situation changes, it becomes a source of suffering. Consider, for example, the sorrow caused by the death of a child. It is because we were so happy when the child was alive that his or her death causes us such pain.  

  

龍樹尊者之所以撰寫《寶鬘論》是為了勸誡一位友人,他是個擁有榮華富貴的國王,龍樹尊者則建議他要善用自己的處境,把它轉為法道。  

Nāgārjuna wrote the Garland of Jewels (Ratnāvalī) as advice for his friend who was a king living in great luxury, so he suggested how to use his situation and turn it into the path of Dharma. 

  

引用自彌勒菩薩《大乘經莊嚴論》。第一句與智慧有關,第二句與悲心有關。  

Maitreya, Ornament of Mahāyāna Sūtras (Mahāyānasūtrālaṅkāra). The first line is connected with wisdom, the second with compassion.  

¹⁰ 

快樂與痛苦、讚美與責備、獲得與失去、名聲與貶抑的「世間八法」。

The ‘eight worldly concerns’ of happiness and suffering, praise and blame, gain and loss, fame and insignificance.

Chinese Translation Source: Lotsawa House

https://www.lotsawahouse.org/zh/tibetan-masters/dodrupchen-III/transforming-suffering-and-happiness

English Translation Source: Lotsawa House

https://www.lotsawahouse.org/tibetan-masters/dodrupchen-III/transforming-suffering-and-happiness